A Reading of the Arab Summit Chronicles
The First Arab Summit in Alexandria, 28-29 May 1946This summit
was held in Al-Muntazah Palace in Alexandria and it included the seven
founding-members of the Arab League which are Egypt, Trans-Jordan, Saudi
Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria. In this summit a joint communiqu�
was issued asserting the wish of the Arab countries to maintain peace
among themselves and the rest of the world through negotiating and
cooperating with the United Nations and documenting and respecting its
resolutions. It also stressed that the Palestinian
issue is a common Arab issue and that Jewish immigration to Palestine is
unacceptable since it leads to unrest and affects public safety.
The Second Arab Summit in Beirut, 13-14 November 1956 This summit
was held after ten years of the first summit in response to the call of
the Lebanese President Kemeil Shamun following the Tripartite Aggression
on Egypt. Ten Arab leaders participated in this summit and they called for
the immediate unconditional withdrawal of the occupation forces from
Egypt. They also declared their support of the Algerian struggle for
The Third Arab Summit in Cairo, 13-17 January l964This summit was
held following the call of the Egyptian President Gamal Abd El-Nasser to
discuss the Israeli practices on the Syrian front. Thirteen Arab leaders
participated in this summit. They approved many decisions including
holding the summit annually, establishing the unified supreme Arab command
and forming an organization representing the Palestinian people. As a
consequence, on 28th May of the same year, the Palestinian Liberation
Organization was founded.
The Fourth Arab Summit in Alexandria, 5-11 September 1964This
summit was held to study the possible means of defending the water of
Jordan River and hindering Israel from exploiting it. It also approved the
founding of Palestinian Liberation Army, an organ of the Palestinian
The Fifth Arab Summit in Casablanca, 13-17 September l965This
summit laid out a charter in support of the Palestinian issue on the Arab
and international levels and hence it was called the Casablanca Charter.
The summit also called for adopting peaceful means in settling disputes.
The Sixth Arab Summit in Khartoum, 29 August- 2 September
1967This summit was held following the setback of 1967 and called for
people�s war against Israel. The Arab leaders also declared that there
will be no negotiations with Israel.
The Seventh Arab Summit in Rabat, 21-23 December 1969Fourteen
Arab countries participated in it to lay out a unified Arab strategy
against Israel. They also granted the Palestinian Liberation Organization
the right of voting.
The Eighth Arab Summit in Cairo, 23-27 September 1970This summit
was considered extraordinary and unofficial following the clashes between
the Palestinians and the Jordanians which were labeled " Black September
Massacres". The summit ended with a reconciliation between King Hussein of
Jordan and Yasser Arafat, chief of the Palestinian Liberation
The Ninth Arab Summit in Algeria, 26-28 November 1973This summit
was held following the victorious 1973 October War and during it the
Palestinian Liberation Organization was acknowledged as the sole and
legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. The summit also posed
two conditions to have peace with Israel and they are:
the lands occupied by Israel in 1967.
*Acknowledging all the national
rights of the Palestinian people.
The Tenth Arab Summit in Rabat, 26-29 October 1974All the Arab
countries participated in this summit for the first time. The joint
communiqu� of this summit asserted the right of the Palestinian people to
establish a national authority on every inch of their land.
The Eleventh Arab Summit in Riyadh, 16-18 October 1976This summit
was extraordinary and included five countries only which are Egypt, Saudi
Arabia, Syria, Kuwait and Lebanon in addition to the Palestinian
Liberation Organization. They reviewed the Lebanese crisis and called for
a cease-fire in Lebanon and sending Arab peace-keeping forces.
The Twelfth Arab Summit in Cairo, 25-26 October 1976This summit
was also held to review the Lebanese crisis and issued a communiqu�.
The Thirteenth Arab Summit in Baghdad, 2-5 November 1978Iraq
called for this summit following Egypt�s signing of the Camp David Peace
Accords with Israel. The Participants decided to break off diplomatic ties
with Egypt in return.
The Fourteenth Arab Summit in Tunisia, 20-22 November 1979This
summit was held following the Israeli storming of Southern Lebanon and
called for making pressures on Israel to put an end to its aggression.
The Fifteenth Arab Summit in Amman, 25-27 November 1980This
summit was held to assert the Arab support of Lebanese sovereignty against
Israeli aggression as well as Iraq in its war with Iran.
The Sixteenth Arab Summit in Fez, 25 November 1981In this summit,
the participants refused the plan of King Fahd of Saudi Arabia to settle
the Middle East crisis and so the agenda was suspended till further notice
The Seventeenth Arab Summit in Fez, 6-9 September 1982In this
summit, the participants acknowledged for the first time the right of the
Israelis to have their state. They also called for the Israeli withdrawal
from the territories occupied in 1967.
The Eighteenth Arab Summit in Casablanca, 7-9 August 1985This
summit was extraordinary and called for lifting the siege imposed by the
Shiite Amal militias on the Palestinian camps in Lebanon.
The Nineteenth Arab Summit in Amman, 8-11 November 1987In this
summit, the participants expressed their support of Iraq in its war with
Iran. They also decided that it is up to each country to restore
diplomatic relations with Egypt.
The Twentieth Arab Summit in Algeria, 7-9 June 1988It was an
extraordinary summit where the participants called for holding an
international conference on the Middle East.
The Twenty-first Arab Summit in Casablanca, 23-26 May 1989Egypt
attended this summit as it regained its membership in the Arab League. The
summit expressed support of UNSC resolutions 242 and 338.
The Twenty-second Arab Summit in Baghdad, 28-30 May 1990The
participants in this summit expressed their support of the Yemeni unity,
Palestinian intifada and Iraqi self-defense rights.
The Twenty-third Arab Summit in Cairo, 15 August 1990In this
summit, the participants denounced the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. They also
decided to send joint forces to the Arab Gulf.
The Twenty-fourth Arab Summit in Cairo, 21-23 June 1996The main
aim of this summit was to heal the rift among Arab ranks and so it issued
some recommendations on top of which are:
*The withdrawal of the
Israelis from the occupied territories is a prerequisite for making
*The necessity of respecting the sovereignty of Bahrain and the
United Arab Emirates by Iran.
*Asking Turkey to reconsider its
agreement with Israel.
* Making a reconciliation between Syria and
*Promoting relations between Egypt and the Sudan
The extraordinary summit of Arab League, Cairo 2000.
The extraordinary summit of Arab
League started on October 21, 2000, and ended on October 22, 2000. The
two-day summit, held in Cairo, came as a prompt response to the
critical situation in the Palestinian territories.
The main purpose of the summit was
to find a unanimous stance of the Arab nations after the erubtion of
violence in the Palestinian occupied lands over the previous two weeks
in the wake of the provocative visit of the Israeli defense minister
Ariel Sharon to Al-Aaqsa Mosque.
The summit emphasized the necissity to provide financial aid to the
Palistinian Authorities, establishing two funds to serve this purpose.
The Arab Leaders ,also, decided to
endorse an Annex to the Charter of the Arab League on the periodic
convening of the summit-level Council of the League.
The first periodical summit of the Arab League, Aman 2001.
The first periodical Arab Summit
in Amman marksed the beginning of a new phase of joint Arab action to
realize solidarity, collaboration, and effectively respond to the
enormous challenges that the Arab nation was facing and meet the
The Arab leaders announced their
full support for the Palestinians, the Lebanese and the Syrians in
their struggle to restore their complete rights.
The leaders demanded lifting sanctions off Iraq and addressing the humanitarian side of the issue.
Aman's declaration recommended
taking all necessary steps to accelerate the establishment of the
greater Arab free trade zone and facilitating the Arab ad-hoc committee
as a mechanism to put the summit's resolutions.
The two-day summit started its activities in the Jordanian capital, Aman, on March 28, 2001.
The second periodical summit of the Arab league, Beirut
The summit came to prove the periodical convention of the Arab League summits on March every year.
The Lebanese capital Beirut hosted the attendants of the two-day summit on the 27th and 28th of March 2002.
The Arab leaders focused in this
summit on the deterriotrating situation in the Palestinian territories,
after the siege put on President Arafat who did not go to the summit,
but participated through the phone.
Among the issues that the Arabs
agreed upon are the state of affairs between Iraq and Kuwait, the
rejection of any attack on Iraq, and the Saudi initiative that was met
with Arab support as it represented the basic Arab principles.